RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS - 12 MARIJUANA RESEARCH PAPERS
Rheumatoid Arthritis - Medical Marijuana Research Papers Worldwide - 2000- 2017
"I've separated my shoulder and my collarbone; I've messed up my knee a million times. I've broken my foot in several places. I've broken my toe a bunch, broken my nose a couple of times, and had a bunch of other annoying little injuries, like turf toe and arthritis and tendonitis. It's part of the game." - Ronda Rousey
1 CANNABIS USERS THINK IT WORKS
1 Survey of Australians using Cannabis for medical purposes. Swift et-al 2005. Harm Reduction Journal 4: 2 to 18.
1 Overall, these findings are consistent with those of other surveys, in revealing the perceived effectiveness of Cannabis for the relief of symptoms associated with several medical conditions. While a small study, it has several implications.
Firstly, people are risking the use of an illicit drug for its perceived therapeutic effects, and in some cases being arrested. Secondly, they are informing their clinicians about their medical use and frequently receiving support, highlighting the importance of ensuring clinicians are informed about Cannabis. Finally, in addition to strong public support, medical Cannabis users demonstrate strong interest in clinical Cannabis research, including the investigation of alternative delivery protocols.
2 THOUSANDS QUESTIONED ABOUT MARIJUANA - 21% USE IT FOR ARTHRITIS
2 The medical use of Cannabis in the UK: findings of a nationwide survey. Ware et-al 2005. International Journal of Clinical Practice 59: 291 to 295.
Subjects were self-selected; 3663 questionnaires were distributed and 2969 were returned, mean age was 52 years.. Medical Cannabis use was reported by patients with chronic pain in 25%, multiple sclerosis and depression - 22% each-, arthritis -21%- and neuropathy -19%-. Medical Cannabis use was associated with younger age, male gender and previous recreational use. While caution should be exercised in interpreting the data, which points toward the need for more clinical studies of Cannabis and cannabinoids, including standardised and quality-controlled products.
3 FIRST CLINICAL TRIAL - THC WORKS FOR ARTHRITIC PAIN - LITTLE SIDE EFFECTS
3 Preliminary assessment of the efficacy, tolerability & safety of a Cannabis medicine (Sativex) in the treatment of pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis. Blake et-al 2006. Rheumatology 45: 50 to 52.
3 In the first ever controlled trial of a Cannabis Based Medicines in RA, a significant analgesic effect was observed and disease activity was significantly suppressed following Sativex treatment. While the differences are small and variable across the population, they are clinically relevant and demonstrate the desire for detailed investigation.
The majority of adverse effects were mild or moderate; there were no adverse effect-related withdrawals or serious adverse effects in the treatment group. Conclusion; in the first ever controlled trial of a Clinical BM in RA, a significant analgesic effect was observed and disease activity was significantly suppressed following Sativex treatment. While the differences were small and variable across the set of individuals, the data represent benefits of clinical relevance and shows the need for detailed investigation in for this indication.
4 CLINICAL TRIALS SHOW CANNABIS REDUCES PAIN IN MS & SIMILAR CONDITIONS
4 Cannabis-based medicines. Drugs in Research and Development 4: 306-309.
4 Improvements in other MS symptoms were observed using Cannabis based medicines. Phase II studies of THC:CBD ratios have also been completed in patients with MS, spinal cord injury, neuropathic pain and a small number of patients, with peripheral neuropathy secondary to diabetes mellitus or AIDS.
A phase II trial of THC:CBD (broad ratio) has also been completed in a small number of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, as has a trial of High CBD in patients with neurogenic symptoms.
A phase II trial has also been evaluated with High THC in small numbers of patients for the treatment of perioperative pain. The phase II trials provided positive findings and confirmed an excellent safety profile for Cannabis-based medicines.
GW Pharmaceuticals received an approval to commence phase II clinical trials in Canada in patients with chronic pain, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury in 2002. Following meetings with the US FDA, Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), the Office for National Drug Control Policy, and National Institute for Drug Abuse, GW was granted an import license from the DEA and has imported its first Cannabis extracts into the US. Preclinical research with these extracts in the US is ongoing.
6 SYNTHETIC CANNABINOID - SUPPRESSES PAIN & INFLAMMATION - BIG TIME
6 A novel synthetic, non psychoactive cannabinoid acid (HU-320) with anti-inflammatory properties in murine collagen-induced arthritis. Sumariwalla et-al 2004. Arthritis & Rheumatism 50: 985 to 998.
6 Our studies demonstrate that the novel synthetic cannabinoid acid HU-320 has strong anti inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties while demonstrating no psychoactive effects. The profound suppressive effects on cellular immune responses and on the production of proinflammatory mediators all indicate its usefulness as a novel non psychoactive, synthetic anti inflammatory product.
7 ANOTHER SYNTHETIC CANNABINOID SUPPRESSES INFLAMMATION
7 HU-444, a novel, potent anti-inflammatory, non-psychotropic cannabinoid. Haj et-al 2015.The Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics. In print.
7 We report the synthesis of a novel CBD derivative, HU-444, which cannot be converted by acid cyclization into a d9THC-like compound. In vitro HU-444 had anti-inflammatory activity (decrease of reactive oxygen intermediates and inhibition of TNF-α production by macrophages); in vivo it led to suppression of production of TNF-α and amelioration of liver damage as well as lowering of mouse collagen-induced arthritis. HU-444 did not cause d9THC-like effects in mice. We believe that HU-444 represents a potential novel drug for rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory diseases.
8 CANNABIS SMOKERS IMMUNE CELLS MODULATED WITH CANNABIS
8 Cannabinoids & the immune system: potential for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Croxford & Yamamura. 2005. Journal of Neuroimmunology 166: 3 to 18.
8 Studies from chronic Cannabis smokers have provided much of the evidence for immunomodulatory effects of Cannabis in humans, and animal and in vitro studies of immune cells such as T cells and macrophages have also provided important evidence. Cannabinoids can modulate both the function and secretion of cytokines from immune cells. Therefore, cannabinoids may be considered for treatment of inflammatory disease. This review article will highlight recent research on cannabinoids and how they interact with the immune system and also their potential use as therapeutic agents for a number of inflammatory disorders.
9 CANNABIS CONTROLS RECEPTORS THAT CURB INFLAMMATION
9 The endocannabinoid system and its therapeutic implications in rheumatoid arthritis. Gui et-al 2015. International Immunopharmacology 26: 86 to 91.
9 Increasing evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system, especially cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), has an important role in the pathophysiology of RA. Many members of the endocannabinoid system are reported to inhibit synovial inflammation, hyperplasia, and cartilage destruction in RA. In particular, specific activation of CB2 may relieve RA by inhibiting not only the production of autoantibodies, proinflammatory cytokines, and MMPs, but also bone erosion, immune response mediated by T cells, and the proliferation of FLSs. In this review, we will discuss the possible functions of the endocannabinoid system in the modulation of RA, which may be a potential target for treatment.
10 ARTHRITIS PATIENTS HAVE MORE CANNABINOID-2 RECEPTORS
10 Cannabinoid receptor 2 as a potential therapeutic target in rheumatoid arthritis. Fukuda et-al 2014. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 15: 275.
10 Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that CB(2) was expressed more in the synovial tissues from the rheumatoid joints than in those from the osteoarthritis joints. CB(2) expression on RA FLS was confirmed with Western blot analysis. JWH 133 inhibited IL-6, MMP-3, and CCL2 production from tumor necrosis factor-α-stimulated fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) derived from the rheumatoid joints, and osteoclastogenesis of peripheral blood monocytes. Administration of JWH 133 to CIA mice reduced the arthritis score, inflammatory cell infiltration, bone destruction, and anti-CII IgG1 production. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that a selective CB(2) agonist could be a new therapy for RA that inhibits production of inflammatory mediators from FLS, and osteoclastogenesis.
11 CHINESE FIND MORE CB2 RECEPTORS IN ARTHRITIS PATIENTS
11 A team of researchers from China sought to determine whether a similar mechanism could be beneficial for rheumatoid arthritis. In doing so, they investigated the potential effects of CB2 receptor activation in FLS-cell types.
According to their findings, rheumatoid arthritis cell-types demonstrated an increased amount of CB2 receptor expression. Further, activating the CB2 receptors seems to have inhibited the proliferation of the FLS cells associated with rheumatoid arthritis.
12 CHINESE DOCTOR - CANNABIS SUPPRESSES INFLAMMATION BY DIALING DOWN CB2 RECEPTOR
12 “Historically, therapy with Cannabis was used to ease the symptoms of a broad spectrum of diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis,” explained study co-author Dr. Sheng-Ming Dai of China’s Second Military Medical University in a recent interview with Nature.
But a major barrier to the widespread use of Cannabis-based treatments is their psychoactive effect, he notes. As a result, scientists have been searching for ways to achieve the same benefits without the high.
In the new study, Dr. Dai and his team confirmed the presence of CB2 receptors in tissue samples taken from patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.
What’s more, by using a chemical that only activates CB2 receptors, the researchers were able to suppress inflammatory molecules thought to be involved with cartilage erosion.
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