PTSD - 12 MEDICAL MARIJUANA RESEARCH PAPERS
Post-Traumatic Stress - Medical Marijuana Research Papers Worldwide - 2000- 2017
"Thirty U.S. military veterans are dying each day from suicides related to the effects of PTSD, and 75% of marijuana users report substantial relief. Medical Marijuana is available legally in only half the country, while only a fraction of medical doctors know anything about it."
1 CANNABINOIDS MODULATES RECEPTORS THAT DIAL DOWN STRESS
1 Elevated brain cannabinoid Cannabinoid B1 receptor availability in post-traumatic stress disorder: a positron emission tomography study. Neumeister et-al 2013 Molecular Psychiatry 18: 1034 to 1040
"Anandamide is a cannabinoid made by the body which functions to modulate mood; fear, anxiety, calmness."
"Cortisol is a hormone that is produced in response to stress, to mobilize energy for the perceived fight, and dials down the immune system and cellular growth."
1 Anandamide concentrations were reduced in the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) ) relative to the TC (53% lower) and HC (58% lower) groups. Cortisol levels were lower in the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and TC groups relative to the HC group. Three biomarkers examined collectively- OMAR VT, anandamide and cortisol- correctly classified about 85% of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) cases.
1 These findings suggest that abnormal Cannabinoid B1 receptor-mediated anandamide signaling is implicated in the etiology of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) , and provide a promising neurobiological model to develop novel, evidence based pharmacotherapies for this disorder.
2 CANNABIS SEEMS TO DIAL DOWN TRAUMA - NEEDS STUDY
2 Mitigation of post-traumatic stress symptoms by cannabis resin: A review of the clinical & neurobiological evidence. Passie et-al Drug Testing & Analysis #4: 649 to 659
2 Cannabis may dampen the strength or emotional impact of traumatic memories through synergistic mechanisms that might make it easier for people with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder - PTSD - to rest and / or sleep and to feel less anxious and less involved with flashback memories.
2 The presence of endocannabinoid signalling systems within stress-sensitive nuclei of the hypothalamus, as well as upstream limbic structures (amygdala), point to the significance of this system for the regulation of neuroendocrine and behavioural responses to stress. Evidence is increasingly accumulating that cannabinoids might play a role in fear extinction and antidepressive effects. It is concluded that further studies are warranted in order to evaluate the medicinal potential of cannabinoids in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder - PTSD- .
3 UBC - WORLD'S #28 UNIVERSITY COMMITS TO MARIJUANA PTSD STUDY
3 B.C. Scientists launch research trial into effects of Cannabis on Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) . Vancouver Sun. September 13, 2016.
3 Dr. Zach Walsh, a clinical psychologist at the University of B.C.’s Okanagan campus, is leading the study, which will put the anecdotal experiences of combat veterans to the test.
“3 - A lot of veterans are using cannabis to help with their Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) ,” Walsh said. “What we see, unfortunately, with therapy-resistant PTSD is people will be on a combination of drugs — one thing to help with sleep, another thing to help with mood and sometimes a bunch of other stuff…. What (veterans say) cannabis does is it addresses a lot of those issues concurrently. It helps them get to sleep, it relaxes them, it helps them to function on a day-to-day level.”
4 DOCTORS OVERCOME DEA OBSTRUCTION TO STUDY PTSD
4 Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) cannabis study to finally move ahead. The Leaf Online. April 27, 2016.
4 The clinical trial will work with seventy six veterans at clinics in Baltimore and Phoenix, administering cannabis grown under DEA license at the University of Mississippi — historically, another logistical roadblock to the study’s initiation, because of longstanding doubts of whether the government facility could provide sufficient cannabis of the potency the study required.
4 That’s the least of Dr. Sisley’s team’s headaches; worse have been NIDA obstructionism and Dr. Sisley’s sudden termination (and the subsequent loss of the study’s funding) at a time suspiciously coincident with political grandstanding by unfriendly (and well-connected) state politicians. Yet Sisley and MAPS have endured all of these roadblocks to receive approval for their study, the first of its kind, to investigate anecdotal claims of cannabis’ effectiveness in treating combat-related Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) .
4 The federal approval is significant, coming at a time when the use of cannabis to treat PTSD has been contentious on the state level. While Pennsylvania, the latest medical Cannabis state, includes PTSD in its list of approved conditions for which medical Cannabis may be validly recommended, many other states, like Illinois, have heretofore excluded the condition from their own lists. The result is that countless combat veterans who are trying to manage their symptoms with cannabis have been made criminals, even in some “medical Cannabis” states.
5 PTSD REDUCED IN 75% OF VETERANS
5 Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptom reports of patients evaluated for the New Mexico Medical Cannabis Program.Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 46: 73 to 77. Greer et-al 2014.
5 Greater than 75% reduction in CAPS symptom scores were reported when patients were using cannabis compared to when they were not. CONCLUSIONS: Cannabis is associated with reductions in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms in some patients, and prospective, placebo-controlled study is needed to determine efficacy of cannabis and its constituents in treating PTSD.
6 LACK OF RESEARCH - DOCTORS SHOULD USE THEIR OWN WISDOM IN RECOMMENDING MMJ FOR PTSD
6 The use of Cannabis in post traumatic stress disorder: A review of the current literature.Stephanie Yarnell. 2015. The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders 17 .
6 Presently, there is no large-scale, randomized, controlled study investigating efficacy of Cannabis and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptomatology; however, the literature that exists suggests that it may have an effect on decreasing PTSD symptoms, and the neurobiological and animal studies seem to suggest potential underlying mechanisms consistent with these findings.
6 However, PTSD may also be related to problematic, pathological use of cannabis. Additionally, the overall literature may be limited by publication bias, and the lack of standardized, large-scale controlled trials at this time makes any final conclusions on the efficacy uncertain.
6 As the number of people seeking medical Cannabis as well as those self-medicating for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) continues to rise, there is a clear need for more research trials and monitoring of the long-term effects of using cannabis for the treatment of PTSD and other medical conditions. Until then, given the limited evidence, physicians need to use their own clinical judgment when weighing the potential risks and benefits for a particular patient.
7 MARIJUANA WELL TOLERATED, PATIENTS SHOW IMPROVEMENT
7 Preliminary, open-label, pilot study of add-on oral d9-THC in chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. Roitman et-al 2014. Clinical Drug Investigation 34: 587 to 591.
7 There were mild adverse effects in three patients, none of which led to therapy discontinuation. The intervention caused a statistically significant improvement in global symptom severity, sleep quality, frequency of nightmares, and PTSD hyperarousal symptoms. Orally absorbable d9-THC was safe and well accepted by patients with chronic PTSD.
420EVALUATIONSONLINE: For the remainder of 2017, patients require a medical doctor's evaluation for marijuana to treat their conditions and symptoms. In 2018, under the California's new rules, medical marijuana card holders will be tax exempt, which amounts to a savings of about $80 per ounce. Our online process is quick and easy, just fill out the online forms and a doctor will review your file the same day. Patients are not required to pay until they have been approved for a Cannabis ID card, 420 recommendation or cultivation permit. Documents are used at dispensaries, online delivery services, cannabis clubs, cooperatives, and other licensed suppliers of cannabis based medicines.
8 MARIJUANA TREATMENT - SIGNIFICANT IMPROVEMENT IN PTSD
8 Use of a synthetic cannabinoid in a correctional population for posttraumatic stress disorder-related insomnia & nightmares, chronic pain, harm reduction, & other indications: a retrospective evaluation. Cameron et-al 2014. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 34: 559 to 564.
8 Results indicated significant improvement in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) -associated insomnia, nightmares, PTSD symptoms, and Global Assessment of Functioning and subjective improvement in chronic pain. Medications associated with greater risk for adverse effects or abuse than nabilone were often able to be discontinued with the initiation of nabilone, most often antipsychotics and sedative/hypnotics.
8 There was no evidence of abuse within this high-risk population or reduction of efficacy when nabilone was given in powder form with water rather than as a capsule. This study supports the promise of nabilone as a safe, effective therapy for concurrent disorders in seriously mentally ill correctional populations. Prospective, randomized controlled trials are required to confirm our preliminary findings. Follow-up in the community will be required to confirm effectiveness in harm reduction.
9 72% NIGHTMARES RELIEVED WITH MARIJUANA USE
9 The use of a synthetic cannabinoid in the management of therapy-resistant nightmares in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Fraser G. 2009. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics #15: 84 to 88. Neumeister et-al 2013. Op. citation.
9 The majority of patients (72%) receiving nabilone experienced either cessation of nightmares or a significant reduction in nightmare intensity. Subjective improvement in sleep time, the quality of sleep, and the reduction of daytime flashbacks and night sweats were also noted by some patients. The findings of this study indicate the potential benefits of nabilone, a synthetic cannabinoid, in patients with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) experiencing poor control of nightmares with standard pharmacotherapy. This is the first report of the use of nabilone - by Cesamet; Valeant Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Canada - for the management of therapy-resistant nightmares in PTSD.
10 BODY ENZYME BLOCKED BY CANNABIS MAY BE THE KEY TO ANTI-ANXIETY ACTION
"An anxiolytic is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety. This effect is in contrast to anxiogenic agents, which increase anxiety. Together these categories of psychoactive compounds or interventions may be referred to as anisotropic compounds or agents."
"An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain. Analgesic drugs act in various ways on the peripheral and central nervous systems. They are distinct from anesthetics, which temporarily affect, and in some instances completely eliminate, sensation."
10 Studies in cells and animals and genetic studies in humans have shown that inhibiting FAAH (an enzyme that destroys cannabinoids) may be a useful strategy to treat anxiety disorders, by effectively dialing up one of the body's own cannabinoid that naturally lowers excitability."
10 Most of the experimental studies that have been conducted so far indicate that by and large the administration of exogenous cannabinoids such as vaporizing medicinal cannabis may not be the most reliable nor effective means of utilizing the Cannabinoid B system to treat stress, anxiety and aversive memories such as those formed in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) .
10 For reliable and truly effective therapy of these conditions it appears that restricting Cannabinoid B breakdown by way of FAAH inhibition is the best target discovered so far within the Cannabinoid B system. (The other Cannabinoid B targets include the two primary receptors Cannabinoid B1/Cannabinoid B2, vanilloid receptors, Cannabinoid B reuptake, as well as Cannabinoid B production.)
10 Even though it produces analgesic, anxiolytic, and anti-depressant effects it otherwise does not produce a classic cannabis-like effect profile and animals easily discriminate between d9THC and KDS-4103. All this indicates that KDS-4103 does not produce a high like d9THC and other direct Cannabinoid B1 agonists. KDS-4103 is orally active in mammals and fails to elicit a systemic toxicity even at repeated dosages of 1,500mg/kg body mass.
10 All other available evidence to date also suggests a very high medicinal margin for KDS-4103. All in all, considering that the kinds of events which usually precipitate PTSD in most individuals often also involve pain, KDS-4103 seems like it may be just about the perfect medication.
11 DOCTOR'S ADVISED TO USE THEIR OWN JUDGEMENT IN RECOMMENDING MARIJUANA FOR PTSD.
11 Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance in the United States. With a growing number of states are legalizing Cannabis for medicinal purposes, there is a need for a better understanding of the mechanism of action and the efficacy of cannabis. To date, there is no large-scale, randomized, controlled study investigating efficacy of Cannabis and PTSD symptomatology; however, the literature suggests that Cannabis based medicines may have the effect to decrease PTSD symptoms.
11 Neurobiological and animal studies suggest potential underlying mechanisms consistent with these findings. However, PTSD could be associated with a problematic, pathological use of cannabis itself. Additionally, the overall literature may be limited by publication bias, and lack of standardized, large-scale controlled trials at this time makes any final conclusion on its efficacy uncertain.
11 As the number of people seeking medical Cannabis as well as those self-medicating for PTSD continues to rise, there is a clear need for more research trials and monitoring of the long-term effects of using cannabis for the therapy of PTSD and other medical conditions. Until then, given the limited evidence, physicians need to use their own clinical judgment when weighing the potential risks and benefits for a particular patient.
12 CHRONIC STRESS IMBALANCES RECEPTOR FUNCTION - CANNABIS CAN REVERSE DYSFUNCTION
"α1-AR - Is a receptor that controls the activity of neurons and may play a crucial role in the regulation of arousal and stress."
12 We found that chronic exposure to restraint stress profoundly reduced the magnitude of α1-AR Long Term Depression but had no effect on the amplitude (amount) of α1-AR-induced inward current. Chronic restraint stress also reduced the Cannabinoid B1 receptor-mediated inhibition of EPSC and the Cannabinoid B-mediated depolarization-induced suppression of excitation.
12 Collectively, these findings indicate that chronic restraint stress impairs the α1-AR Long Term Depression by reducing the function of presynaptic Cannabinoid B1 receptors and reveal a novel mechanism by which noradrenaline controls synaptic strength and plasticity in the DRn. They also provide evidence that chronic stress impairs Cannabinoid B signaling in the DRn, which may contribute, at least in part, to the dysregulation of the stress homeostasis.