CANNABIS TRENDING TO #1 - INFLAMMATION & AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE
Why suffer when there are Cannabis Based Medicines
" According to the National Institute of Pain, Cannabis has 20 x the antiinflammitory power of Asprin."
A doctor hesitated in prescribing CBD to a patient with an autoimmune disorder, that same patient was taking a gigantic cocktail of pharmaceuticals, including pregnenolone. The Doc said, CBD works, but we don't know enough about it. After picking our jaw up off the floor, to tame the ignorance, we set about writing of this article, which references about one hundred research reports - relating to solely to cannabis and inflammation - from renowned institutes from across the planet.
CANNABINOIDS - THE BEST SOLUTION TO INFLAMMATION - RIGHT NOW?
Cannabinoids modulate the two types of receptors found in immune system cells that control inflammation
Cannabinoids can increase programmed cell death in immune T cells
Studies show that THC, THCV, CBD attenuate (dial down) both receptors that control immune response
Cannabinoids have a very lower level of toxicity
THC and CBD are better tolerated than steroids and other pharmaceuticals, by a very wide margin
A google, medical literature search reveals no cases of malpractice involving THC, CBD or other cannabinoids
Several cannabinoids show anti-bacterial, antiviral, and antimicrobial properties
Cannabinoids interacts can contradict or complement other medicines
WILL CANNABINOIDS BECOME THE NUMBER ONE ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUG?
Cannabinoids are defined medically as a substance that attenuates or moderates the body's cannabinoid receptors. There are two main cannabinoid receptors that have been studied thus far. The CB1 receptor is greatly affected by psychoactive d9THC, the main ingredient of most types of American marijuana.
In fact, the discovery of THC itself led to the discovery of the cellular receptor system, hence the name. The CB1 receptor is predominant in the brain and nervous system while the CB2 receptor is found predominantly in the cells that comprise the immune system. The cannabinoid CBD interacts powerfully with the CB2 receptor with only a minor effect on the CB1 receptor. Later it was discovered that both CB1 and CB2 receptors have reside in immune cells, which explains why so many cannabinoids affect and modulates the immune response.
"Most research focuses on the generall efficacy of Cannabis, THC and CBD. It is virtually certain that an individualized custom mix of with other cannabinoids and terpenes in varying ratios stands to greatly amplify the therapeutic effect in inflammation and other conditions. This concept is very exciting to both sufferers and researchers of auto-immune diseases alike."
Recently, research studies have demonstrated that suggests THC and other cannabinoids play an important role in the regulation of the immune system. Recent studies demonstrated that the administration of THC in mice triggered apoptosis - cell death in rogue immune T cells and dendritic cells, which resulted in immunosuppression. Interestingly, the same cannabinoids that suppress immune response also exhibit antimicrobial properties simultaneously.
"Cannabinoid receptor trafficking in immune cells is dynamically regulated by a binary biochemical switch and ingredients in marijuana such as THC and CBD." - Biochemical Pharmacology
In addition, cannabinoids were shown to downregulate infection-signaling chemical production; of both cytokine and chemokine. The role of the body's own endocannabinoid system is also involved in immunoregulation and erratic delivery or overproduction of the body's endocannabinoids is thought to lie at the core of errant immune response / disease.
The administration of endocannabinoids of enzymes that break down the endocannabinoids, was shown to lead to immunosuppression and recovery from immune-mediated injury. Manipulation of the endocannabinoid system (agonist and antagonist) using cannabinoids may offer better and safer treatment of inflammatory disorders, due to their especially low toxicity in mammals.
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FURTHER READING - A LOT OF RESEARCH ABOUT WHAT IT DOES
Inflammation - Project CBD
Inflammation – Medical Marijuana Research Overview
Why Cannabis Stems Inflammation
Hemp Oil For Inflammation – Studies Show Benefits of Cannabinoids ETH Zurich/Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
Cannabinoids, inflammation, and fibrosis Robert B. Zurier1 and Sumner H. Burstein
Department of Medicine University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts; and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts USA
Target regulation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway by cannabidiol in treatment of experimental multiple sclerosis. Fitoterapia116, 77-84. Sabrina Giacoppo, Federica Pollastro, Gianpaolo Grassi, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon. (2017)
Pathways and gene networks mediating the regulatory effects of cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, in autoimmune T cells. Journal of Neuroinflammation 13:1. Ewa Kozela, Ana Juknat, Fuying Gao, Nathali Kaushansky, Giovanni Coppola, Zvi Vogel. (2016)
Therapy implications of the role of interleukin-2 in cancer. Expert Review of Clinical Immunology, 1-8. Paolo Lissoni. (2016)
Docosahexaenoic acid attenuates in endocannabinoid synthesis in RAW 264.7 macrophages activated with benzo(a)pyrene and lipopolysaccharide. Toxicology Letters258, 93-100. Joanna Gdula-Argasi?ska, Beata Bystrowska. (2016)
Host factors associated with serologic inflammatory markers assessed using multiplex assays. Cytokine 85, 71-79. Heather S. McKay, Jay H. Bream, Joseph B. Margolick, Otoniel Martínez-Maza, John P. Phair, Charles R. Rinaldo, Alison G. Abraham, Lisa P. Jacobson. (2016)
Anti-Inflammatory and Osteoprotective Effects of Cannabinoid-2 Receptor Agonist HU-308 in a Rat Model of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Periodontitis. Journal of Periodontology 87:6, 725-734. Cesar A. Ossola, Pablo N. Surkin, Claudia E. Mohn, Juan C. Elverdin, Javier Fernández-Solari. (2016)
Hydroxytyrosol Inhibits Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Gene Expression in 3T3-L1 Preadipocyte Cell Line. Journal of Cellular Physiology231:2, 483-489. Valeria Tutino, Antonella Orlando, Francesco Russo, Maria Notarnicola. (2016)
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HU-446 and HU-465, Derivatives of the Non-psychoactive Cannabinoid Cannabidiol, Decrease the Activation of Encephalitogenic T Cells. Chemical Biology & Drug Design 87:1, 143-153. Ewa Kozela, Christeene Haj, Lumir Hanuš, Mukesh Chourasia, Avital Shurki, Ana Juknat, Nathali Kaushansky, Raphael Mechoulam, Zvi Vogel. (2016)
For whom the endocannabinoid tolls: Modulation of innate immune function and implications for psychiatric disorders. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 64, 167-180. Rebecca J. Henry, Daniel M. Kerr, David P. Finn, Michelle Roche. (2016)
Downstream effects of endocannabinoid on blood cells: implications for health and disease. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 72:17, 3235-3252. Valeria Gasperi, Daniela Evangelista, Isabella Savini, Domenico Del Principe, Luciana Avigliano, Mauro Maccarrone, Maria Valeria Catani. (2015)
Primary Macrophage Chemotaxis Induced by Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Agonists Occurs Independently of the CB2 Receptor. Scientific Reports 5, 10682. Lewis Taylor, Ivy Christou, Theodore S. Kapellos, Alice Buchan, Maximillian H. Brodermann, Matteo Gianella-Borradori, Angela Russell, Asif J. Iqbal, David R. Greaves. (2015)
Psychiatric Symptoms, Salivary Cortisol and Cytokine Levels in Young Marijuana Users. Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 10:2, 380-390. Christine C. Cloak, Daniel Alicata, Thomas M. Ernst, Linda Chang. (2015)
Exposure to Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Impairs the Differentiation of Human Monocyte-derived Dendritic Cells and their Capacity for T cell Activation. Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 10:2, 333-343. Michael D. Roth, Julie T. Castaneda, Sylvia M. Kiertscher. (2015)
Epigenetic Regulation of Immunological Alterations Following Prenatal Exposure to Marijuana Cannabinoids and its Long Term Consequences in Offspring. Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 10:2, 245-254. Elizabeth E. Zumbrun, Jessica M. Sido, Prakash S. Nagarkatti, Mitzi Nagarkatti. (2015)
Elevated Levels of Endocannabinoids in Chronic Hepatitis C May Modulate Cellular Immune Response and Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 16:4, 7057-7076. Eleonora Patsenker, Philip Sachse, Andrea Chicca, María Gachet, Vreni Schneider, Johan Mattsson, Christian Lanz, Mathias Worni, Andrea de Gottardi, Mariam Semmo, Jochen Hampe, Clemens Schafmayer, Rudolf Brenneisen, Jürg Gertsch, Felix Stickel, Nasser Semmo. (2015)
Δ 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol attenuates Staphylococcal enterotoxin B-induced inflammatory lung injury and prevents mortality in mice by modulation of miR-17-92 cluster and induction of T-regulatory cells. British Journal of Pharmacology 172:7, 1792-1806. R Rao, P S Nagarkatti, M Nagarkatti. (2015)
Central administration of GPR55 receptor agonist and antagonist modulates anxiety-related behaviors in rats. Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology 29:2, 185-190. Abbasali Rahimi, Akbar Hajizadeh Moghaddam, Ali Roohbakhsh. (2015)
Cannabinoid CB2 receptor stimulation attenuates brain edema and neurological deficits in a germinal matrix hemorrhage rat model. Brain Research 1602, 127-135. Yihao Tao, Jun Tang, Qianwei Chen, Jing Guo, Lin Li, Liming Yang, Hua Feng, Gang Zhu, Zhi Chen. (2015)
Cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive cannabinoid, leads to EGR2-dependent anergy in activated encephalitogenic T cells. Journal of Neuroinflammation 12:1, 52. Ewa Kozela, Ana Juknat, Nathali Kaushansky, Avraham Ben-Nun, Giovanni Coppola, Zvi Vogel. (2015)
Cannabinoids increase lung cancer cell lysis by lymphokine-activated killer cells via upregulation of ICAM-1. Biochemical Pharmacology92:2, 312-325. Maria Haustein, Robert Ramer, Michael Linnebacher, Katrin Manda, Burkhard Hinz. (2014)
Cannabinoid type 2 receptor stimulation attenuates brain edema by reducing cerebral leukocyte infiltration following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 342:1-2, 101-106. Mutsumi Fujii, Prativa Sherchan, Paul R. Krafft, William B. Rolland, Yoshiteru Soejima, John H. Zhang. (2014)
Simultaneous ultra-high performance liquid chromathograpy-electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry quantification of endogenous anandamide and related N-acylethanolamides in bio-matrices. Journal of Chromatography B 958, 83-89. Roberta Ottria, Alessandro Ravelli, Fausto Gigli, Pierangela Ciuffreda. (2014)
Vitreous biomarkers in diabetic retinopathy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Diabetes and its Complications 28:3, 419-425. Annie K. McAuley, Paul G. Sanfilippo, Alex W. Hewitt, Helena Liang, Ecosse Lamoureux, Jie Jin Wang, Paul P. Connell. (2014)
Curcumin modulates cannabinoid receptors in liver fibrosis in vivo and inhibits extracellular matrix expression in hepatic stellate cells by suppressing cannabinoid receptor type-1 in vitro. European Journal of Pharmacology 721:1-3, 133-140. Zili Zhang, Yao Guo, She Zhang, Yan Zhang, Yuqing Wang, Wenxia Ni, Desong Kong, Wenjing Chen, Shizhong Zheng. (2013)
Cannabinoids Decrease the Th17 Inflammatory Autoimmune Phenotype. Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology8:5, 1265-1276. Ewa Kozela, Ana Juknat, Nathali Kaushansky, Neta Rimmerman, Avraham Ben-Nun, Zvi Vogel. (2013)
Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2, but not Type 1, is Up-Regulated in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Children Affected by Autistic Disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 43:11, 2686-2695. Dario Siniscalco, Anna Sapone, Catia Giordano, Alessandra Cirillo, Laura de Magistris, Francesco Rossi, Alessio Fasano, James Jeffrey Bradstreet, Sabatino Maione, Nicola Antonucci. (2013)
Immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects of N-acyl dopamines on Con A-stimulated splenocytes of BALB/c mouse. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 115:11, 1284-1293. Mei Chen Jin, Xi-Wen Liu, Mee Ree Kim, Dai-Eun Sok. (2013)
Anti-inflammatory activity of topical THC in DNFB-mediated mouse allergic contact dermatitis independent of CB1 and CB2 receptors. Allergy 68:8, 994-1000. E. Gaffal, M. Cron, N. Glodde, T. Tüting. (2013)
The monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor JZL184 attenuates LPS-induced increases in cytokine expression in the rat frontal cortex and plasma: differential mechanisms of action. British Journal of Pharmacology 169:4, 808-819. DM Kerr, B Harhen, BN Okine, LJ Egan, DP Finn, M Roche. (2013)
The role of CB1 in immune modulation by cannabinoids. Pharmacology & Therapeutics 137:3, 365-374. Barbara L.F. Kaplan. (2013)
Cannabinoid receptor 1 suppresses transient receptor potential vanilloid 1-induced inflammatory responses to corneal injury. Cellular Signalling 25:2, 501-511. Y. Yang, H. Yang, Z. Wang, K. Varadaraj, S.S. Kumari, S. Mergler, Y. Okada, S. Saika, P.J. Kingsley, L.J. Marnett, P.S. Reinach. (2013)
RNAi screen in apoptotic cancer cell-stimulated human macrophages reveals co-regulation of IL-6/IL-10 expression. Immunobiology 218:1, 40-51. Stephanie Ley, Andreas Weigert, Jean-Karim Hériché, Blandine Mille-Baker, Richard A.J. Janssen, Bernhard Brüne. (2013)
Long-term treatment with methanandamide attenuates LPS-induced periodontitis in rats. Inflammation Research 61:9, 941-948. Cesar A. Ossola, Pablo N. Surkin, Antonela Pugnaloni, Claudia E. Mohn, Juan C. Elverdin, Javier Fernandez-Solari. (2012)
Indole-2-carboxamides as Allosteric Modulators of the Cannabinoid CB 1 Receptor. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 55:11, 5627-5631. Francesco Piscitelli, Alessia Ligresti, Giuseppe La Regina, Antonio Coluccia, Ludovica Morera, Marco Allarà, Ettore Novellino, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Romano Silvestri. (2012)
Jonas Kleyer, Simon Nicolussi, Peter Taylor, Deborah Simonelli, Evelyne Furger, Pascale Anderle, Jürg Gertsch. (2012) Cannabinoid receptor trafficking in peripheral cells is dynamically regulated by a binary biochemical switch. Biochemical Pharmacology 83:10, 1393-1412.
Effect of the Cannabinoid Receptor-1 antagonist SR141716A on human adipocyte inflammatory profile and differentiation. Journal of Inflammation 8:1, 33. Ravi Murumalla, Karima Bencharif, Lydie Gence, Amritendu Bhattacharya, Frank Tallet, Marie-Paule Gonthier, Stefania Petrosino, Vincenzo di Marzo, Maya Cesari, Laurence Hoareau, Régis Roche. (2011)